[2], The building is cylindrical with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. Het Pantheon is een antieke tempel in Rome uit de 2e eeuw n.Chr. Die plein buite die Panteon dra dieselfde naam - Piazza della Rotonda. Pantheon adalah sebuah bangunan kuil berbentuk bulat yang dibina dari tahun 27 SM sehingga ia diselesaikan pada zaman pemerintahan Maharaja Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M di pusat kota Roma. On peut voir su… The dome features sunken panels (coffers), in five rings of 28. [39] The only other loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The oculus at the top of the dome was never covered, allowing rainfall through the ceiling and onto the floor. An ionic frieze runs around its exterior walls. However, Paul the Deacon records the spoliation of the building by the Emperor Constans II, who visited Rome in July 663: Remaining at Rome twelve days he pulled down everything that in ancient times had been made of metal for the ornament of the city, to such an extent that he even stripped off the roof of the church [of the blessed Mary], which at one time was called the Pantheon, and had been founded in honour of all the gods and was now by the consent of the former rulers the place of all the martyrs; and he took away from there the bronze tiles and sent them with all the other ornaments to Constantinople. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. Un panthéon est l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie : par exemple, le panthéon gréco-romain.Ce mot vient du grec : pan (« tous ») et théos (« dieu »), et signifie donc « tous les dieux ». Het Pantheon is een van de best bewaard gebleven Romeinse gebouwen ter wereld. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Carracci, the composer Arcangelo Corelli, and the architect Baldassare Peruzzi. On the left wall is a Descent of the Holy Ghost (1790) by Pietro Labruzi. [3] The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same, 43 metres (142 ft).[4]. "[22], The only passages referring to the decoration of the Agrippan Pantheon written by an eyewitness are in Pliny the Elder's Natural History. [58] The Pantheon still holds the record for the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The two plaques commemorate Maria Bibbiena and Annibale Carracci. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Cuneo in 2017. It was originally built as a temple to the gods of Ancient Rome, and rebuilt about 126 AD during Hadrian 's reign. nécessaire]). Pope Urban VIII (1623 to 1644) ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Today, it is not known what gods were included. Hidden chambers engineered within the rotunda form a sophisticated structural system. [25], The Augustan Pantheon was destroyed along with other buildings in a huge fire in the year 80 AD. The 4,535-tonne weight of the Roman concrete dome is concentrated on a ring of voussoirs 9.1 metres (30 ft) in diameter that form the oculus, while the downward thrust of the dome is carried by eight barrel vaults in the 6.4-metre-thick (21 ft) drum wall into eight piers. [6], The name "Pantheon" is from the Ancient Greek "Pantheion" (Πάνθειον) meaning "of, relating to, or common to all the gods": (pan- / "παν-" meaning "all" + theion / "θεῖον"= meaning "of or sacred to a god"). Place du Panthéon, a square in Paris; Pantheon, London, an 18th-century place of entertainment; Pantheon of National Revival Heroes, a Bulgarian national monument and ossuary; Pantheon, Moscow, a planned but uncompleted memorial … An empirical relationship gives a tensile strength of 1.47 MPa (213 psi) for this specimen. The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. [11], Godfrey and Hemsoll point out that ancient authors never refer to Hadrian's Pantheon with the word aedes, as they do with other temples, and the Severan inscription carved on the architrave uses simply "Pantheum". While this building helped buttress the rotunda, there was no interior passage from one to the other. The bust is a portrait of Cardinal Agostino Rivarola. Revenir à la page « Panthéon (Rome) ». The choir was added in 1840, and was designed by Luigi Poletti. [15] It seems likely that the Pantheon and the Basilica of Neptune were Agrippa's sacra privata, not aedes publicae (public temples). Français : L'autel principal de l'église Santa Maria ad Martyres (le Pantheon), Rome, Italie. J.-C). [45] The grey granite columns that were actually used in the Pantheon's pronaos were quarried in Egypt at Mons Claudianus in the eastern mountains. Image taken by Martin Olsson (mnemo on wikipedia and commons, martin@minimum.se), 2nd of May 2005. [41] Concerning this, an anonymous contemporary Roman satirist quipped in a pasquinade (a publicly posted poem) that quod non fecerunt barbari fecerunt Barberini ("What the barbarians did not do the Barberinis [Urban VIII's family name] did"). As a result, the interior decorative zones do not line up. [36] Two columns were swallowed up in the medieval buildings that abutted the Pantheon on the east and were lost. The epigraph was written by Pietro Bembo. The building standing today was constructed on the same site around 126 CE. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 6 février 2020 à 11:23. The present high altars and the apses were commissioned by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721) and designed by Alessandro Specchi. Pantheon, Rome, a temple to the gods of ancient Rome, now a Roman Catholic church building; Panthéon, Paris, a commemorative monument and burial place . Par exemple : le panthéon grec, égyptien, hindou. It is also substantially larger than earlier domes. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history and, since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been in use as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Latin: Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The frieze has allegorical representations of Generosity, by Eugenio Maccagnani, and Munificence, by Arnaldo Zocchi. On 23 July 1725, the Pantheon was established as Cardinal-deaconry of S. Maria ad Martyres, i.e. The marble interior has largely survived, although with extensive restoration. On coins, the same words, "M. Agrippa L.f cos. tertium", were the ones used to refer to him after his death; consul tertium serving as "a sort of posthumous cognomen ex virtute, a remembrance of the fact that, of all the men of his generation apart from Augustus himself, he was the only one to hold the consulship thrice. The Pantheon is in use as a Catholic church. The first chapel on the right, the Chapel of the Annunciation, has a fresco of the Annunciation attributed to Melozzo da Forlì. Pembangunan kuil ini diselesaikan pada masa pemerintahan Kaisar Hadrian (118 SM-28 M) pada tahun 126 M. Hadrian membangun kuil ini untuk penyembahan terhadap dewa-dewa Romawi. In the walls at the back of the Pantheon's portico are two huge niches, perhaps intended for statues of Augustus Caesar and Agrippa. Holes marking the location of clamps that held the sculpture suggest that its design was likely an eagle within a wreath; ribbons extended from the wreath into the corners of the pediment.[42]. The second niche has a 15th-century fresco of the Tuscan school, depicting the Coronation of the Virgin. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio. [59] It is the only masonry dome to not require reinforcement. Le Panthéon est un temple que les Grecs et les Romains consacraient à certains de leurs dieux, par exemple le Panthéon de Rome, dédié à tous les dieux. In the second chapel is the tomb of King Victor Emmanuel II (died 1878). Pantheon, The Ancient Roman Building - Traveldigg.com. 1676 x 1200 jpeg 773kB. À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. While more recent archaeological diggings have suggested that Agrippa's building might have had a circular form with a triangular porch, and it might have also faced north, much like the later rebuildings, Ziolkowski complains that their conclusions were based entirely on surmise; according to him, they did not find any new datable material, yet they attributed everything they found to the Agrippan phase, failing to account for the fact that Domitian, known for his enthusiasm for building and known to have restored the Pantheon after 80 AD, might well have been responsible for everything they found. She reexamined Herbert Bloch's 1959 paper, which is responsible for the commonly maintained Hadrianic date, and maintains that he should not have excluded all of the Trajanic-era bricks from his brick-stamp study. [7] Cassius Dio, a Roman senator who wrote in Greek, speculated that the name comes either from the statues of many gods placed around this building, or from the resemblance of the dome to the heavens. Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome: Innovations in Context. Cet usage fut initié en 1520 : le peintre Raphaël repose au Panthéon de Rome, exemple qui fut suivi au Panthéon de Paris et en d'autres lieux. [60], Though often drawn as a free-standing building, there was a building at its rear which abutted it. There are three memorial plaques in the floor, one conmmemorating a Gismonda written in the vernacular. This discordance has not always been appreciated, and the attic level was redone according to Neoclassical taste in the 18th century.[68]. La construction du Panthéon a commencé en 27 avant J.C. sous la direction de Marcus Agrippa et est lun des rares monuments de lancienne Rome encore intact. Nous connaissons mieux le panthéon des Grecs et des Romains. [47] After being unloaded near the Mausoleum of Augustus, the site of the Pantheon was still about 700 metres away. Kuil ini turut digunakan sebagai gereja dari tahun 609 sampai 1885 serta sebagai suatu tempat pemakaman bagi … The second niche has a statue of St Agnes, by Vincenzo Felici. Panteonul, o clădire din Roma (Italia), comandat de Marcus Agrippa ca un templu pentru toți zeii din Roma antică, și reconstruit de împăratul Hadrian, în aproximativ 126 d.Hr. It was commissioned by Raphael and made by Lorenzetto in 1524. [55] This reduced the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex by means of the oculus.[56]. On the right side is the low relief Cardinal Consalvi presents to Pope Pius VII the five provinces restored to the Holy See (1824) made by the Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen. [57] These dimensions make more sense when expressed in ancient Roman units of measurement: The dome spans 150 Roman feet; the oculus is 30 Roman feet in diameter; the doorway is 40 Roman feet high. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned … In the Imperial period, it expressed the invincibility of deities embraced officially, such as Jupiter, Mars, Hercules, and Sol. This evenly spaced layout was difficult to achieve and, it is presumed, had symbolic meaning, either numerical, geometric, or lunar. Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 800 × 519 pixels. [64] The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method. The final niche on the right side has a statue of St. Anastasio (1725) by Bernardino Cametti.[69]. At the very top, where the dome would be at its weakest and vulnerable to collapse, the oculus actually lightens the load. It has this name, perhaps because it received among the images which decorated it the statues of many gods, including Mars and Venus; but my own opinion of the name is that, because of its vaulted roof, it resembles the heavens. The altar with the royal arms is by Cirilli. [30][31] This now-barely legible inscription reads: In 609, the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who converted it into a Christian church and consecrated it to St. Mary and the Martyrs on 13 May 609: "Another Pope, Boniface, asked the same [Emperor Phocas, in Constantinople] to order that in the old temple called the Pantheon, after the pagan filth was removed, a church should be made, to the holy virgin Mary and all the martyrs, so that the commemoration of the saints would take place henceforth where not gods but demons were formerly worshipped. Buildings. ISBN 0-521-84202-6 Loewenstein, Karl. The Historia Augusta says that Hadrian dedicated the Pantheon (among other buildings) in the name of the original builder (Hadr. In 1747, the broad frieze below the dome with its false windows was "restored," but bore little resemblance to the original. The large bronze doors to the cella, measuring 4.45m wide by 7.53m high, are the oldest in Rome. The only definite pantheon recorded earlier than Agrippa's was at Antioch in Syria, though it is only mentioned by a sixth-century source. [26], The degree to which the decorative scheme should be credited to Hadrian's architects is uncertain. It is also known as the Madonna of the Railing, because it originally hung in the niche on the left-hand side of the portico, where it was protected by a railing. The confraternity continued to draw members from the elite of Rome's artists and architects, and among later members we find Bernini, Cortona, Algardi, and many others. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects. File; File history; File usage on Commons; File usage on other wikis ; Metadata; Size of this preview: 800 × 585 pixels. Its Roman concrete dome is 4535 metric tons. At its thickest point, the aggregate is travertine, then terracotta tiles, then at the very top, tufa and pumice, both porous light stones. [12] It seems highly significant that Dio does not quote the simplest explanation for the name—that the Pantheon was dedicated to all the gods. In the early decades of the 20th century, a piece of the original, as could be reconstructed from Renaissance drawings and paintings, was recreated in one of the panels. This description was widely accepted until the late 20th century. Le Panthéon est lun des bâtiments le plus représentatif du centre de Rome. Le mot « panthéon » peut désigner trois notions différentes : . [52], No tensile test results are available on the concrete used in the Pantheon; however, Cowan discussed tests on ancient concrete from Roman ruins in Libya, which gave a compressive strength of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). Weddings are also held there from time to time. [21], The form of Agrippa's Pantheon is debated. Pantheon - Colosseum Rome Tickets . Il Pantheon (in greco antico: Πάνθεον [ἱερόν], Pántheon [hierón], «[tempio] di tutti gli dei»), in latino classico Pantheum, è un edificio della Roma antica situato nel rione Pigna nel centro storico, costruito come tempio dedicato a tutte le divinità passate, presenti e future. The tomb of King Umberto I and his wife Margherita di Savoia is in the next chapel. The tomb consists of a large bronze plaque surmounted by a Roman eagle and the arms of the house of Savoy. The Pantheon (UK: /ˈpænθiən/, US: /-ɒn/;[1] Latin: Pantheum,[nb 1] from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating his famous baldachin above the high altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but, according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice. The Pan­theon is a state prop­erty, man­aged by Italy's Min­istry of Cul­tural Her­itage and Ac­tiv­i­ties and Tourism through the Polo Muse­ale del Lazio; in 2013 it was vis­ited by over 6 mil­lion peo­ple. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (2005). [48] Thus, it was necessary to either drag them or to move them on rollers to the construction site. [citation needed]. From him we know that "the capitals, too, of the pillars, which were placed by M. Agrippa in the Pantheon, are made of Syracusan bronze",[23] that "the Pantheon of Agrippa has been decorated by Diogenes of Athens, and the Caryatides, by him, which form the columns of that temple, are looked upon as masterpieces of excellence: the same, too, with the statues that are placed upon the roof,"[24] and that one of Cleopatra's pearls was cut in half so that each half "might serve as pendants for the ears of Venus, in the Pantheon at Rome". Langue; Suivre; Modifier; Fichier; Historique du fichier; Utilisation du fichier; Usage global du fichier; Métadonnées; Taille de cet aperçu : 417 × 599 pixels. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. The sarcophagus was given by Pope Gregory XVI, and its inscription reads ILLE HIC EST RAPHAEL TIMUIT QUO SOSPITE VINCI / RERUM MAGNA PARENS ET MORIENTE MORI, meaning "Here lies Raphael, by whom the mother of all things (Nature) feared to be overcome while he was living, and while he was dying, herself to die". Giuseppe Sacconi participated, but lost – he would later design the tomb of Umberto I in the opposite chapel. This refers to the confraternity of artists and musicians that was formed here by a 16th-century Canon of the church, Desiderio da Segni, to ensure that worship was maintained in the chapel. The Panthéon (French: [pɑ̃.te.ɔ̃], from the Classical Greek word πάνθειον, pántheion, ('temple to all the gods') is a monument in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.It is located in the area known as the Latin Quarter, standing atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, at the center of the Place du Panthéon which was named after it. [13] In fact, Livy wrote that it had been decreed that temple buildings (or perhaps temple cellae) should only be dedicated to single divinities, so that it would be clear who would be offended if, for example, the building were struck by lightning, and because it was only appropriate to offer sacrifice to a specific deity (27.25.7–10). Media in category "Pantheon (Rome)" The following 75 files are in this category, out of 75 total. Masses are celebrated there on Sundays and holy days of obligation. The present design is by Giuseppe Sacconi, completed after his death by his pupil Guido Cirilli. On the right wall is the canvas Emperor Phocas presenting the Pantheon to Pope Boniface IV (1750) by an unknown. 1869 x 1301 jpeg 824kB. Two kings of Italy are buried in the Pantheon: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Umberto's Queen, Margherita. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Umberto was buried in the Pantheon in Rome, by the side of his father Victor Emmanuel II, on 9 August 1900. Much fine external marble has been removed over the centuries – for example, capitals from some of the pilasters are in the British Museum. In the Chapel of the Crucifixion, the Roman brick wall is visible in the niches. [8] His uncertainty strongly suggests that "Pantheon" (or Pantheum) was merely a nickname, not the formal name of the building. The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment, destruction, and the worst of the spoliation that befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early medieval period. English: An image of Pantheon in Rome, Italy. To the sides are paintings (1661) by Francesco Cozza, one of the Virtuosi: Adoration of the Shepherds on left side and Adoration of the Magi on right. le panthéon égyptien doit être considéré spirituellement différent par rapport à ceux de la Grèce et de, Centre national de ressources textuelles et lexicales, Liste des divinités de la mythologie grecque, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Panthéon&oldid=167126828, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [65][66] In antiquity, the coffers may have contained bronze rosettes symbolising the starry firmament. À propos de Wikipédia; Avertissements; Rechercher. [citation needed], The building was originally approached by a flight of steps. [5], The pediment was decorated with relief sculpture, probably of gilded bronze. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Camera for various other works. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 23 novembre 2020 à 17:19. All other extant ancient domes were either designed with tie-rods, chains and banding or have been retrofitted with such devices to prevent collapse. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Ce terme désigne aussi l'ensemble des dieux d'une mythologie ou d'une religion. It was rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. It was originally dedicated to the Holy Spirit. The Pantheon (meaning "Temple of all the gods") is a building in Rome. Lexington books, Toronto, 2007, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCinti2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFWilson-Jones2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRoss2000 (, Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism, M[arcus] Aurelius Antoninus Pius Felix Aug[ustus], S. Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine, National Institute of Honour Guards to the Royal Tombs, List of the oldest buildings in the world, "Nuova guida metodica di Roma e suoi contorni – Parte Terza ("New methodic guide to Rome and its suburbs – Third Part")", Another view of the interior by Panini (1735), Liechtenstein Museum, Vienna, "Pantheon, The ruins and excavations of ancient Rome", http://www.romanconcrete.com/docs/chapt01/chapt01.htm, "Hooping as an Ancient Remedy for Conservation of Large Masonry Domes", Official webpage from Vicariate of Rome website, Tomás García Salgado, "The geometry of the Pantheon's vault", Panoramic Virtual Tour inside the Pantheon, Roman Catholic ecclesiastical province of Rome, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pantheon,_Rome&oldid=992354073, 2nd-century religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Conversion of non-Christian religious buildings and structures into churches, Buildings converted to Catholic church buildings, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 20:44. [27] How the building was actually used is not known. The Pantheon is the best preserved of all Roman buildings. On the first niche to the left of the entrance is an Assumption (1638) by Andrea Camassei. Dans l'Antiquité, les villes étaient créées sous l'égide d'un dieu protecteur de la ville (« divinité poliade »), et le fondateur trouvait sa légitimité en s'affirmant être le fils d'un dieu (surtout chez les Grecs). Par extension, on appelle Panthéon un monument où sont déposés les corps des hommes illustres d'une nation. Mark and Hutchison estimated that, if normal weight concrete had been used throughout, the stresses in the arch would have been some 80% greater. Certainly the word pantheus or pantheos, could be applicable to individual deities. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Each was 11.9 metres tall, 1.5 metres in diameter, and 60 tonnes in weight. A competition was held to decide which architect should design it. Dio appears to be the only near-contemporaneous writer to mention the Pantheon. [46] These were dragged more than 100 km (62 miles) from the quarry to the river on wooden sledges. [67], Circles and squares form the unifying theme of the interior design. The Pantheon is full of such devices – for example, there are relieving arches over the recesses inside – but all these arches were hidden by marble facing on the interior and possibly by stone revetment or stucco on the exterior. Later construction raised the level of the ground leading to the portico, eliminating these steps. Le contenu est disponible sous licence CC BY-SA 3.0 sauf mention contraire. Enshrined on the apse above the high altar is a 7th-century Byzantine icon of the Virgin and Child, given by Phocas to Pope Boniface IV on the occasion of the dedication of the Pantheon for Christian worship on 13 May 609. It had long been thought that the current building was built by Agrippa, with later alterations undertaken, and this was in part because of the Latin inscription on the front of the temple[19] which reads: or in full, "M[arcus] Agrippa L[ucii] f[ilius] co[n]s[ul] tertium fecit," meaning "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time. Manfredo Manfredi won the competition, and started work in 1885. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. [57] The oculus at the dome's apex and the entry door are the only natural sources of light in the interior. The first members were, among others, Antonio da Sangallo the younger, Jacopo Meneghino, Giovanni Mangone, Zuccari, Domenico Beccafumi, and Flaminio Vacca. Instead, after the intended columns failed to arrive, the builders made many awkward adjustments in order to use shafts 40 Roman feet tall and capitals eight Roman feet tall. Lise Hetland argues that the present construction began in 114, under Trajan, four years after it was destroyed by fire for the second time (Oros. Filippo Brunelleschi, among other architects, looked to the Pantheon as inspiration for their works. The Pantheon (UK: / ˈ p æ n θ i ə n /, US: /-ɒ n /; Latin: Pantheum, from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, "[temple] of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a Catholic church (Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres or Basilica of St. Mary and the Martyrs), in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhof (1973). 3864 x 2577 jpeg 1636kB. In 2013, it was visited by over 6 million people. Dernière modification le 23 novembre 2020, à 17:19. The top of the rotunda wall features a series of brick relieving arches, visible on the outside and built into the mass of the brickwork.

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